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Tuna, Skipjack

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Green
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General

Mackerel-like fish

Mackerel-like (Scrombodei) from a subspecies of the Perciformes, the biggest order of fish. Mackerel (Atlantic-, horse mackerel etc), tuna, swordfish and barracudas all fall among the mackerel-like fish. Globally it is a very popular fish and forms an important source of food and income for many people. Mackerel are pelagic fish that live in large schools. While swimming in large schools, mackerel-like fish confuse their predators with the silver-like brilliance from their scales. Island mackerel is the smallest with 2o cm, the largest is the bluefin tuna that can reach a size of over 5 meters.

Tuna, Skipjack

Skipjack tuna is found around the world, but the majority (70%) is found in the Pacific Ocean. It is the smallest size of commercial tuna species with a maximum length of 110 cm and a maximum weight of 35 kg. Skipjack tuna is often found in mixed schools with juvenile yellowfin- and bigeye tuna. Skipjack matures around 1-2 years of age. This makes it more resilient to fishing pressure in comparison with the bigger bluefin or yellowfin tuna. All the skipjack in the Pacific is part of one stock. Skipjack is most commenly caught with purse seines. The purse seining fishermen take advantage of the attraction of tuna to floating objects, by releasing floating objects in the water (Fish Aggregating Devices, FADs).

Tuna, Skipjack

Katsuwonus pelamis
Origin

Indian Oceaan (west), Pacific Ocean (FAO 51|67|71|77|81|87)

Farming- / Catch method

Purse seines, Handlines and pole-lines (hand operated)

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Explanation assessment

Skipjack tuna is mainly caught with purse seines and pole & lines. There are four MSC-certifiedMSC Certified:
Fisheries that comply with the Marine Stewardship Council assessment criteria and are certified. Fish products with the blue MSC label are caught by sustainable fisheries.
skipjack fisheries in the Pacific Ocean: the purse-seinesPurse seines:
A ring net in which the net is circulated around a school of fish. Then the net is closed and taken in. This is also called 'purse seine'. 
fishery in the territorial waters of Papua New Guinea, Kiribati, FS Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, the Solomon Islands and Tuvalu and recently also the Japanese handline fishery. There is also one MSC-certifiedMSC Certified:
Fisheries that comply with the Marine Stewardship Council assessment criteria and are certified. Fish products with the blue MSC label are caught by sustainable fisheries.
skipjack fishery in the Indian Ocean, the pole & line fishery from the Maldives.

There are several pole & line and purse seine fisheries in the MSC assessment program.

 

Tuna, Skipjack

Katsuwonus pelamis
Origin

Atlantic Ocean, eastern parts (FAO 27|34|47)

Farming- / Catch method

Handlines and pole-lines (hand operated)

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Fish stocks and fishing pressure
Ecosystem effects
Fishery management
Final assessment
Explanation assessment

Although the skipjack stock in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean seems to be in a good state, the reliability of these stock-estimationStock estimation:
Estimating the number of fish of a particular species who are reproducing in the same spawning area in the same period.  
is not clear. Due to the fact that skipjack tuna is reasonably resistent to fishing pressureFishing pressure:
Fishing pressure is a result of the fishing effort/amount of fishing on a stock, which determines the fishing mortality. Fishing mortality is the share of the fish stock that dies annually as a result of fishing.
, this assessment receives a green score for this category.

The hand-operatedHand operated lines and pole lines:
A collective name for pole lines, jigs and troll lines. Hand lines and pole lines are used on a small scale most of the time and are relatively selective. unwanted by-catch have a high survival rate because they can be thrown back immediately.  
pole and line fishery is a selectiveSelective fishing methods:
Selective fishing methods capture many target species, and little or no unwanted fish species and animals.  
fishing method with little to no bycatchBycatch:
Species caught next to species targeted for fishery. By-catches can consist of non-commercial species and species that are too small, and can be kept (this part is sometimes called by-product) or thrown back into the sea (discards). 
. Furthermore, the survivability of these discards is often quite high. Thus, this category scores green.

The ICCATICCAT:
International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, an international fisheries organization responsible for the conservation of tuna and tuna species in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas.
is responsible for the managment of tuna in the Atlantic Ocean. This management is seen as partially effective.

Fish in season 

Fish is in season when the spawning period has ended, as the quality is then at its best.

Tuna, Skipjack

Katsuwonus pelamis
Origin

Indian Ocean (FAO 51|57)

Farming- / Catch method

Handlines and pole-lines (hand operated)

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Fish stocks and fishing pressure
Ecosystem effects
Fishery management
Final assessment
Explanation assessment

Although the skipjack stock in the Indian Ocean seems to be in a good state, the reliability of these stock-estimationStock estimation:
Estimating the number of fish of a particular species who are reproducing in the same spawning area in the same period.  
is not clear. Due to the fact that skipjack tuna is reasonably resistent to fishing pressureFishing pressure:
Fishing pressure is a result of the fishing effort/amount of fishing on a stock, which determines the fishing mortality. Fishing mortality is the share of the fish stock that dies annually as a result of fishing.
, this assessment receives a yellow score for this category.

The hand-operatedHand operated lines and pole lines:
A collective name for pole lines, jigs and troll lines. Hand lines and pole lines are used on a small scale most of the time and are relatively selective. unwanted by-catch have a high survival rate because they can be thrown back immediately.  
pole and line fishery is a selectiveSelective fishing methods:
Selective fishing methods capture many target species, and little or no unwanted fish species and animals.  
fishing method with little to no bycatchBycatch:
Species caught next to species targeted for fishery. By-catches can consist of non-commercial species and species that are too small, and can be kept (this part is sometimes called by-product) or thrown back into the sea (discards). 
. Furthermore, the survivability of these discards is often quite high. Thus, this category scores green.

The IOTCIOTC:
Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, an international organization dedicated to the management of tuna and tuna species in the Indian Ocean and adjacent seas.
is responsible for the managment of tuna in the Indian Ocean. Although managment practices have been improved since 2016, the enformcement of this management is lacking. This is why this category scores red.

Fish in season 

Fish is in season when the spawning period has ended, as the quality is then at its best.

Tuna, Skipjack

Katsuwonus pelamis
Origin

Pacific Ocean - west and central (FAO 61|71|77|81)

Farming- / Catch method

Purse seines

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Fish stocks and fishing pressure
Ecosystem effects
Fishery management
Final assessment
Explanation assessment

The skipjack stockStock:
The fish of a particular species reproducing in the same area in the same period. 
in the western and central Pacific Ocean seems to be doing well. Although catches have increased, there are no signs of overfishingOverfishing:
There is so much fish caught that the size of the stock has diminished so far that it can no longer produce a maximum sustainable yield. The size of the fish populations is insufficient to reproduce in the long term. 
of the stock. Although the stock is currently in good condition, it is unsure if current management measures will ensure and prolong this situation in the future. Therefore, this category receives a yellow score.

Although purse-seinesPurse seines:
A ring net in which the net is circulated around a school of fish. Then the net is closed and taken in. This is also called 'purse seine'. 
fishery is a selectiveSelective fishing methods:
Selective fishing methods capture many target species, and little or no unwanted fish species and animals.  
fishing method, the amount of bycatchBycatch:
Species caught next to species targeted for fishery. By-catches can consist of non-commercial species and species that are too small, and can be kept (this part is sometimes called by-product) or thrown back into the sea (discards). 
remains unclear. Furthermore, this fishery is can cause harm to threatened and protected species. Thus, this category scores yellow.

The WCPFCWCPFC:
Western Central Pacific Fishery Commission, an international organisation dedicated to the conservation and management of fish stocks in the Pacific Ocean.  
is responsible for the managment of tuna in the west and central Pacific Ocean. The effectiveness of management is seen as mariginally effective and therefore scores red.

Fish in season 

Fish is in season when the spawning period has ended, as the quality is then at its best.

 

 

Tuna, Skipjack

Katsuwonus pelamis
Origin

Atlantic Ocean, eastern parts (FAO 27|34|47)

Farming- / Catch method

Purse seines without Fish Aggregation Devices (FAD), Purse seines

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Fish stocks and fishing pressure
Ecosystem effects
Fishery management
Final assessment
Explanation assessment

Although the skipjack stock in the Indian and Atlantic Ocean seems to be in a good state. Due to the fact that skipjack tuna is reasonably resistant to fishing pressureFishing pressure:
Fishing pressure is a result of the fishing effort/amount of fishing on a stock, which determines the fishing mortality. Fishing mortality is the share of the fish stock that dies annually as a result of fishing.
, this assessment receives a green score for this category.

Although purse-seinesPurse seines:
A ring net in which the net is circulated around a school of fish. Then the net is closed and taken in. This is also called 'purse seine'. 
fishery is a selectiveSelective fishing methods:
Selective fishing methods capture many target species, and little or no unwanted fish species and animals.  
fishing method, the amount of bycatchBycatch:
Species caught next to species targeted for fishery. By-catches can consist of non-commercial species and species that are too small, and can be kept (this part is sometimes called by-product) or thrown back into the sea (discards). 
remains unclear. Furthermore, this fishery is can cause harm to threatened and protected species. Thus, this category scores yellow.

The ICCATICCAT:
International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, an international fisheries organization responsible for the conservation of tuna and tuna species in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas.
is responsible for the management in the Atlantic Ocean. Although management practices have been improved since 2016, the enforcement of this management is lacking. This is why this category scores red.

Fish in season 

Fish is in season when the spawning period has ended, as the quality is then at its best.

Tuna, Skipjack

Katsuwonus pelamis
Origin

Pacific Ocean - east and south (FAO 77|81|87)

Farming- / Catch method

Purse seines without Fish Aggregation Devices (FAD)

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Fish stocks and fishing pressure
Ecosystem effects
Fishery management
Final assessment
Explanation assessment

The skipjack stockStock:
The fish of a particular species reproducing in the same area in the same period. 
in the eastern Pacific Ocean seems to be doing well. Although catches have increased, there are no signs of overfishingOverfishing:
There is so much fish caught that the size of the stock has diminished so far that it can no longer produce a maximum sustainable yield. The size of the fish populations is insufficient to reproduce in the long term. 
of the stock. However, the accuracy of the stock-assessmentStock assessment:
Based on data about fish catch of fishermen and samples conducted with research vessels, a stock assessment describes the current and former status of a fishery stock. The size of the stock will be measured and a prediction will be made about how the stock will respond to management measures.
are uncertain; It has been proven difficult to create an accurate model to make stock assessments of this species. However, stocks are assumed to be in healthy condition. Therefore, this category receives a green score.

The purse-seinesPurse seines:
A ring net in which the net is circulated around a school of fish. Then the net is closed and taken in. This is also called 'purse seine'. 
fishery for tuna is selectiveSelective fishing methods:
Selective fishing methods capture many target species, and little or no unwanted fish species and animals.  
and has little bycatchBycatch:
Species caught next to species targeted for fishery. By-catches can consist of non-commercial species and species that are too small, and can be kept (this part is sometimes called by-product) or thrown back into the sea (discards). 
. The impact of removing a large number of apex predators, like tuna, on the ecosystem is unknown. This category therefore scores yellow.

The governance on longline fishery by IATTCIATTC:
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, a committee dedicated to the conservation and management of tuna and other marine species in the East Pacific Ocean.
is mariginally effective and therefore scores red.

Fish in season 

Fish is in season when the spawning period has ended, as the quality is then at its best.

 

Tuna, Skipjack

Katsuwonus pelamis
Origin

Indian Ocean (FAO 51|57)

Farming- / Catch method

Gillnets

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Fish stocks and fishing pressure
Ecosystem effects
Fishery management
Final assessment
Explanation assessment

Although the skipjack stock in the Indian Ocean seems to be in a good state, the reliability of these stock-estimationStock estimation:
Estimating the number of fish of a particular species who are reproducing in the same spawning area in the same period.  
is not clear. Due to the fact that skipjack tuna is reasonably resistent to fishing pressureFishing pressure:
Fishing pressure is a result of the fishing effort/amount of fishing on a stock, which determines the fishing mortality. Fishing mortality is the share of the fish stock that dies annually as a result of fishing.
, this assessment receives a yellow score for this category.

The amount of bycatchBycatch:
Species caught next to species targeted for fishery. By-catches can consist of non-commercial species and species that are too small, and can be kept (this part is sometimes called by-product) or thrown back into the sea (discards). 
is as of yet unknown in the gillnetsGillnets:
A fishing technique whereby passing fish get caught in the meshes with their gills. The net stands vertically on the bottom or hangs on buoys in the water column. The by-catch of species such as porpoises and dolphins is a problem related to gillnets.
fishery on tuna in the Indian Ocean. It is expected to be high and can consist of threatened and protected species such as sharks, sea turtles, and marine mammals.

The IOTCIOTC:
Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, an international organization dedicated to the management of tuna and tuna species in the Indian Ocean and adjacent seas.
is responsible for the managment of tuna in the Indian Ocean. Although managment practices have been improved since 2016, the enformcement of this management is lacking. This is why this category scores red.

Fish in season 

Fish is in season when the spawning period has ended, as the quality is then at its best.

ASC label

Fish with the ASC label is farmed in a sustainable manner.

MSC label

Fish with the MSC label is caught sustainably.

Good fish

This fish is not being overfished or is being responsibly farmed, with minimal impact on the environment.

Second choice

This fish is a second choice. There are still some improvements to be made in this fishery or fish farm.

Avoid

Do not buy this fish. It's being overfished or the way it's farmed or caught has a negative impact on the environment.

Welfare

There is fish available of this species that is farmed or caught using high welfare standards.

GlobalG.A.P.

GlobalG.A.P. certified farms are doing a step in the right direction in terms of sustainability. A few species with this label are getting a better score on the VISwijzer.

Organic

Organic standards are the strictest when it comes to fish feed. They also require certain measures for animal well-being.