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Rainbow trout

Quality mark Cultivation
/Keurmerk Wild
Green
Second choice
Avoid
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General

Salmonids

There are many species that belong to the Salmonids or (Protacanthopterygii). Did you know trouts, smelts, and even pikes belong to the Salmon family? Salmonids occur in either salt and freshwater. Most species are well-specialized predators and live in temperate climate zones.  Salmonids are ray-finned fishes and can be distinguished by the ‘fat-fin’ between the backfin and tail. They do not have spikes and the pelvic and pectoral fin are separated.

Salmonids are sold farmed and wildcaught. Wildcaught salmon comes from the Pacific. Almost all Atlantic salmon on sold is farmed. Since the 90s the farming of salmon increased dramatically. Norway, chile, Scotland, Canada and the Faroe islands are important farming countries for salmon. In both, wild-caught and farmed salmon problems in sustainability are prevalent.

 

 

 

Rainbow trout

The rainbow trout belongs to the same family as the Pacific salmon. The native distribution of the rainbow trout ranges from south-west Canada to the north-western part of the USA. Some rainbow trout populations are anadromous. This means that they are born is freshwater and then migrate to sea to become mature. After a few years, the mature fish return to freshwater to reproduce. Rainbow trout can reach lengths of up to 115 cm long. As this species is both farmed and used for restocking fishing ponds, it can be found all over the world.

 

Rainbow trout

Oncorhynchus mykiss
Origin

Worldwide

Farming- / Catch method

Raceways (flow-through system), Pond systems (aquaculture), Cages (aquaculture)

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Explanation assessment

The largest part of farmed trout is produced in flow-throughFlow-through:
A cultivation technique whereby water is led from a higher point to the cultivation basin. From here it flows to the drainage. This water must be cleaned thoroughly, otherwise it may have negative impacts on the environment.
systems, recirculationRecirculation systems:
An environmentally friendly cultivating system completely locked from the natural environment, wastewater is purified and re-used and the system is well controlled.
systems and pondsPonds:
A cultivation technique whereby fish is cultivated in ponds. This happens extensively (without additional feed) and intensive (with additional feed supplements). 
. A small part is farmed in cagesCages:
A cultivation technique with open cages in the sea, lake or river. They are anchored to the bottom and are standing in places sheltered for storm and high waves. Most salmon is grown in this type of culture system. Because the cages are in open connection with the surrounding water, the impact on the environment is high.
at sea, this production method is growing.

The content of fish meal and fish oil in the feed for trout is quite high. More than 2 kg wild-caught fish needed to grow 1 kg trout. The feed itself is also often not sustainable because is consists of ingredients that are not caught or produced in a sustainable way.

ASCASC:
Aquaculture Stewardship Council, a worldwide eco-label for responsible cultivated fish.
trout is available since 2014. This certification not only ensures that the feed is becoming more sustainable, but also that measures are taken to limit the negative environmental impacts.

These measures are maintained by strict independent audits on the farms.  to which the farms are subject. ASC trout is therefore trout that is produced in a responsible manner with respect for the environment and society.

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Rainbow trout

Oncorhynchus mykiss
Origin

Denmark

Farming- / Catch method

Pond systems (aquaculture), Recirculation system (aquaculture)

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Source usage
Impact on the environment
Management
Final assessment
Explanation assessment

Rainbow trout is not a naturally occurring species in Europe. This species was introduced for anglers.

In Denmark, trout is produces in pondsPonds:
A cultivation technique whereby fish is cultivated in ponds. This happens extensively (without additional feed) and intensive (with additional feed supplements). 
and recirculationRecirculation systems:
An environmentally friendly cultivating system completely locked from the natural environment, wastewater is purified and re-used and the system is well controlled.
systems. Many Danish trout farms are ASC-certified and Danish producers are working towards ASC-certification for all farms.

The use of large volumes of freshwater is a concern for trout aquaculture in ponds. This is not a problem in recirculation systems as the water is re-used with this method. These systems do have a high energy demand.

Trout needs relatively large amounts of feed and the species is carnivorous. Therefore, the feed used to contain relatively high amounts of [fishmeal] and [fishoil]. Danish farms mainly use sustainably sourced fishmeal and fishoil, more than other European trout farms. Because of the high feed demand, trout produce a lot of manure. This is deposited, together with used water, into the local environment which causes pollution. This is especially a problem for the trout produced in open sea cages. The manure can then enter the sea directly.

Diseases and parasites are not a large concern, however disease outbreaks do occur.

The Danish environmental laws are considered to be among the strictest worldwide. Fish farms have to meet specific requirements. The management is very effective.

Fishing season

This assessment concerns a farmed species. Seasonal information is not relevant when it comes to fish from aquaculture farms.

Rainbow trout

Oncorhynchus mykiss
Origin

Europe, inland

Farming- / Catch method

Raceways (flow-through system), Pond systems (aquaculture), Cages (aquaculture), Recirculation system (aquaculture)

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Source usage
Impact on the environment
Management
Final assessment
Explanation assessment

Rainbowtrout is not a naturally occuring species in Europe. This species was introduced for anglers. Nowadays, it is a well-known consumption fish and it’s cultured all over Europe.

Trout can be produced in pondsPonds:
A cultivation technique whereby fish is cultivated in ponds. This happens extensively (without additional feed) and intensive (with additional feed supplements). 
, [recirulcation] systems, sea cagesCages:
A cultivation technique with open cages in the sea, lake or river. They are anchored to the bottom and are standing in places sheltered for storm and high waves. Most salmon is grown in this type of culture system. Because the cages are in open connection with the surrounding water, the impact on the environment is high.
and flow-throughFlow-through:
A cultivation technique whereby water is led from a higher point to the cultivation basin. From here it flows to the drainage. This water must be cleaned thoroughly, otherwise it may have negative impacts on the environment.
systems. The use of large volumes of freshwater is a concern in ponds and flow-through systems. This is not a problem in recirculation systems as the water is re-used with this method. These systems do have a high energy demand.

Trout needs relatively large amounts of feed and the species is carnivorous. Therefore, the feed used contains relatively high amounts of [fishmeal] and [fishoil]. These ingredients are often produced from wild-caught fish and not sustainably sourced. Because of the high feed demand, trout produce a lot of manure. This is deposited, together with the used water, into the natural environment which can be polluting. This is especially a problem in the trout production using open sea cages. The manure enters the sea directly.

Diseases and parasites are not a large concern, however disease outbreaks do occur. In open sea cages, the risk of disease spreading and outbreakes is higher.

The European aquaculture management system also concerning trout is largely effective. However, the current management system does not succeed in minimizing all negative environmental effects. This needs improvement.

Fishing season

This assessment concerns a farmed species. Seasonal information is not relevant when it comes to fish from aquaculture farms.

Rainbow trout

Oncorhynchus mykiss
Origin

Chile, Turkey

Farming- / Catch method

Raceways (flow-through system), Pond systems (aquaculture), Cages (aquaculture)

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Source usage
Impact on the environment
Management
Final assessment
Explanation assessment

Trout is produced in Chile and Turkey in pondsPonds:
A cultivation technique whereby fish is cultivated in ponds. This happens extensively (without additional feed) and intensive (with additional feed supplements). 
, sea cagesCages:
A cultivation technique with open cages in the sea, lake or river. They are anchored to the bottom and are standing in places sheltered for storm and high waves. Most salmon is grown in this type of culture system. Because the cages are in open connection with the surrounding water, the impact on the environment is high.
or flow-throughFlow-through:
A cultivation technique whereby water is led from a higher point to the cultivation basin. From here it flows to the drainage. This water must be cleaned thoroughly, otherwise it may have negative impacts on the environment.
systems. The trout production has grown tremendously in the past 20 years, Chile has become the largest trout producing country worldwide.

Trout can be cultured both in fresh- and saltwater. Continious water exchange is very important in trout production. Mainly in ponds and flow-trhough systems this can be a problem. Water has to be refreshed continuously, using clean surface water surrounding the farm. This is not a concern in trout production in open sea cages.

Trout is a carnivorous species which needs a relatively large amount of feed. The feed also contains a high amount of [fishmeal] and [fishoil] coming from wild-caught fish to optimize trout growth. The feed used in trout production in Turkey and Chile has a relatively high amount of this fishmeal and fishoil.

Trout needs a lot of feeding and therefore also produces a lot of manure. This has a negative impact on the surroundings of the farm when the water with manure is deposited into the environment. Farm escapes are common and medicines and chemicals are used irresponsibly. Turkey does not have standards for the humane killing of trout.

Aquaculture management has improved over the years both in Chile and Turkey. However, management is not as strict as in Europe and negative impacts of the trout aquaculture are still common.

Fishing season

This assessment concerns a farmed species. Seasonal information is not relevant when it comes to fish from aquaculture farms.

ASC label

Fish with the ASC label is farmed in a sustainable manner.

MSC label

Fish with the MSC label is caught sustainably.

Good fish

This fish is not being overfished or is being responsibly farmed, with minimal impact on the environment.

Second choice

This fish is a second choice. There are still some improvements to be made in this fishery or fish farm.

Avoid

Do not buy this fish. It's being overfished or the way it's farmed or caught has a negative impact on the environment.

Welfare

There is fish available of this species that is farmed or caught using high welfare standards.

GlobalG.A.P.

GlobalG.A.P. certified farms are doing a step in the right direction in terms of sustainability. A few species with this label are getting a better score on the VISwijzer.

Organic

Organic standards are the strictest when it comes to fish feed. They also require certain measures for animal well-being.