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Salmon, Chinook

Quality mark Cultivation
/Keurmerk Wild
Green
Second choice
Avoid
Bycatch
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General

Salmonids

There are many species that belong to the Salmonids or (Protacanthopterygii). Did you know trouts, smelts, and even pikes belong to the Salmon family? Salmonids occur in either salt and freshwater. Most species are well-specialized predators and live in temperate climate zones.  Salmonids are ray-finned fishes and can be distinguished by the ‘fat-fin’ between the backfin and tail. They do not have spikes and the pelvic and pectoral fin are separated.

Salmonids are sold farmed and wildcaught. Wildcaught salmon comes from the Pacific. Almost all Atlantic salmon on sold is farmed. Since the 90s the farming of salmon increased dramatically. Norway, chile, Scotland, Canada and the Faroe islands are important farming countries for salmon. In both, wild-caught and farmed salmon problems in sustainability are prevalent.

 

 

 

Salmon, Chinook

The Chinook salmon, or king salmon, is one of the five salmon species that can be found in the northern Pacific Ocean and its adjoining rivers. The native distribution of the Chinook salmon ranges from Alaska to California in the east and from Siberia to Japan in the west. This species has also been introduced in other areas. This salmon can reach an average length of 70 cm and can weigh up to 30 kilograms. Salmon are so called anadromous fish. This means that they are born is freshwater and then migrate to sea to become mature. After a few years, the mature fish return to freshwater to reproduce. When the chinook salmon return to reproduce, their appearance changes; their colours change to olive-green, red and purple and the males develop elongated jaws. Salmon only reproduce once and die shortly after.

 

Salmon, Chinook

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Origin

Pacific Ocean, north-east (FAO 67)

Farming- / Catch method

Purse seines, Pots and traps, Handlines and pole-lines (hand operated), Driftnets, Gillnets

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Explanation assessment

Multiple fisheries on Chinook salmon are [MSC certified], all of them in Alaska. These use a multitude of fishing methods, including the “fishing wheel”, a wheel with fishing nets on it that rotates in the current and that way catches the fish and drops them in a collection basin. The Pacific salmon fishery is well regulated and the fishing methods bring little harm to the environment.

 

Salmon, Chinook

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Origin

Pacific Ocean, north-east (FAO 67)

Farming- / Catch method

Purse seines, Handlines and pole lines (mechanised)

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Fish stocks and fishing pressure
Ecosystem effects
Fishery management
Final assessment
Explanation assessment

The stock of Chinook salmon in Alaska is in bad condition. A portion of the stock is purposely not being fished, so the salmon can reproduce. The size of this portion for a sustainable salmon stock is determined in so called [“escapement goals”]. These goals are often not reached because there are still more salmon being caught. Some salmon fisheries have been closed in the past years. This seems to have an effect. The salmon stocks are also being monitored intensively, which makes a well-done stock assessment possible.

With trolling and seining there is little bycatch of protected fish species and undersized fish. There also little to no discards. These fishing methods don’t impact the seabed. The effects of releasing young salmon on the ecosystem are still unknown. The salmon fishery along the west coast of the US is one of the best managed and monitored fisheries in the world. Catches are regulated by a permit system, closed areas and seasons. Fisheries are closed when the determined catch limits are reached.

 

Salmon, Chinook

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Origin

Pacific Ocean, north-east (FAO 67)

Farming- / Catch method

Gillnets

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Fish stocks and fishing pressure
Ecosystem effects
Fishery management
Final assessment
Explanation assessment

The stock of Chinook salmon in Alaska is in relatively good condition. A portion of the stock is purposely not being fished, so the salmon can reproduce.  Some salmon fisheries have been closed in the past years. The salmon stocks are also being monitored intensively, which makes a well-done stock assessment possible.

Chinook salmon is caught with gillnets, among other methods. It is not clear if gillnets pose a danger to endangered and protected fish species. Discards are low, and gillnets don’t disrupt the seabed. The effects of releasing young salmon on the ecosystem are still unknown.

The salmon fishery along the west coast of the US is one of the best managed and monitored fisheries in the world. Catches are regulated by a permit system, closed areas and seasons. Fisheries are closed when the determined catch limits are reached.

 

Salmon, Chinook

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Origin

Pacific Ocean, north-east (FAO 67)

Farming- / Catch method

Purse seines, Hooks and lines

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  • Nov
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Fish stocks and fishing pressure
Ecosystem effects
Fishery management
Final assessment
Explanation assessment

The stock of Chinook salmon in Alaska is in relatively good condition. A portion of the stock is purposely not being fished, so the salmon can reproduce. The size of this portion for a sustainable salmon stock is determined in so called [“escapement goals”]. These goals are often not reached because there are still more salmon being caught. Some salmon fisheries have been closed in the past years. This seems to have an effect. The salmon stocks are also being monitored intensively, which makes a well-done stock assessment possible.

With trolling and seining there is little bycatch of protected fish species and undersized fish. There also little to no discards. These fishing methods don’t impact the seabed. The effects of releasing young salmon on the ecosystem are still unknown. The salmon fishery along the west coast of the US is one of the best managed and monitored fisheries in the world. Catches are regulated by a permit system, closed areas and seasons. Fisheries are closed when the determined catch limits are reached.

 

Salmon, Chinook

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Origin

Pacific Ocean, north-east (FAO 67)
Deelgebieden: British Columbia

Farming- / Catch method

Purse seines, Hooks and lines, Gillnets

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Fish stocks and fishing pressure
Ecosystem effects
Fishery management
Final assessment
Explanation assessment

The stock of Chinook salmon in British Columbia is in bad condition. A portion of the stock is purposely not being fished, so the salmon can reproduce. There are measures being made to lower the fishing pressure on salmon.

With hooks and lines there is bycatchBycatch:
Species caught next to species targeted for fishery. By-catches can consist of non-commercial species and species that are too small, and can be kept (this part is sometimes called by-product) or thrown back into the sea (discards). 
of bottom fish. This bycatch is mostly landed. The effects of repopulating the stock with salmon from aquaculture are still unknown. The disappearing of salmon has large effects on the nutrient supply in freshwater ecosystems.

The management focuses on the most important issues with salmon fishery. There is only no management for the effects of repopulating the stock with salmon from aquaculture.

 

Salmon, Chinook

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Origin

Pacific Ocean, north-west (FAO 61)

Farming- / Catch method

Fyke, Driftnets, Gillnets

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Fish stocks and fishing pressure
Ecosystem effects
Fishery management
Final assessment
Explanation assessment

The catch of Chinook salmon is only a small part of the Russian salmon fishery. Chinook salmon is mostly bycatch from the fisheries on Chum and pink salmon. There are no data available on this fishery, therefore the impact of this fishery on the Chinook salmon stock cannot be assessed.

[Driftnets] are a hazard for vulnerable seabirds, dolphins and whales. It is estimated that there are a lot of bycatch and discards in this fishery, but unfortunately there are no trustworthy data on this.

Illegal, Unreported and Unreported (IUU) fishery is also a big problem. Catches are not or falsely reported to the authorities. The management on this fishery is not effective.

 

ASC label

Fish with the ASC label is farmed in a sustainable manner.

MSC label

Fish with the MSC label is caught sustainably.

Good fish

This fish is not being overfished or is being responsibly farmed, with minimal impact on the environment.

Second choice

This fish is a second choice. There are still some improvements to be made in this fishery or fish farm.

Avoid

Do not buy this fish. It's being overfished or the way it's farmed or caught has a negative impact on the environment.

By-catch

This fish is unwillingly caught while fishing for a different species. They are underused and should be eaten more.

GlobalG.A.P.

GlobalG.A.P. certified farms are doing a step in the right direction in terms of sustainability. A few species with this label are getting a better score on the VISwijzer.

Organic

Organic standards are the strictest when it comes to fish feed. They also require certain measures for animal well-being.

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