Atlantic Ocean (FAO 21|27|31|34|41|47)
There are only very little information available on the stocks of stony sea urchin (P lividus) in ICES IX (West of Portugal) There are no stock assessments available for this species, fishing data are only available as total catches. This is an invertebrate species to which the classical risk factors are not applicable, Thus the stock status, and the species vulnerability and resilience are unknown. The species is managed Spanish (Galicien) and Portuguese waters by an extensive set of catch and effort limitations. The current fishing practice is considered not the threaten the stock.
Hand picking by divers is among the most conservative fishing methods in use; As the species are individually picked up on sight, there are no discards and no bycatches (either non-target or ETP species) at all. Habitat damage is negligible. Ecosystem effects caused by this fishery are highly unlikely.
The management framework established by the EU is considered partly effective, however this small scale fishery is difficult to manage through conventional methods.